Презентация General Criteria - PoS

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General Criteria of Distinguishing Parts of Speech

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The Part of Speech Category is a lexical-grammatical category.

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Parts of Speech are word classes united semantically and characterized by a very abstract, common meaning, which is expressed by a combination of grammatical features of these words.

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Criteria Semantic (meaning)

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Formal and Functional Criteria In general grammatical characteristic of PoS their morphological and syntactic features play an equally important role. But the syntactic part is more general and that is why it takes the first place in the grammatical characteristic of a word. It is due to the fact that morphologically not all the word classes can be definitely distinguished, but they have their certain syntactic role. E.g.: interjections and adverbs are both uninflected, but they belong to different PoS due to their different syntactic roles.

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The Role of Lexical Morphology There are certain word-forming affixes which indicate the PoS of a given word. E.g.: -ness, -dom, -hood (nouns), -ate, -ize, -en (verbs), -ly (adverbs), etc. But the role of these indicators in distinguishing PoS is insignificant and they are applicable only when they do not contradict the results obtained from the grammatical form of the word. E.g.: difference (n) ‘разница’ — difference (v) ‘отличать’.

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The Problem of Validity of Criteria In order to have scientific validity any classification must be organized on a constant basis, i.e. the adopted principle(s) must be applicable to all the words of a given class and the classes must be mutually exclusive. The classification could be consistent if based on a single principle. A. I. Smirnitsky (1956) doubts the validity of distinguishing PoS according to the formal or functional criteria only: “nouns are nouns not because they are able to decline, but they are able to decline because they are nouns”. Syntactic role may be induced by the general meaning. E.g.: adjectives — property — combined with nouns — attribute.

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Thank you for your attention!

Теги General Criteria - PoS
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