🗊Презентация Main stages of formation and development of social and political science

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Слайды и текст этой презентации

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Theme 2. Main stages of formation and development of social and political science
Описание слайда:
Theme 2. Main stages of formation and development of social and political science

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Outline
Antique  period
Middle age and Renaissance 
The Enlightenment 
Sociology
Описание слайда:
Outline Antique period Middle age and Renaissance The Enlightenment Sociology

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Antique  period 
Socratic
Law is above both the ruler and the ruled. 
Man is a social being and therefore the institution of the State is necessary and beneficial for him. 
Politics is not a profession but an art. The ruler should be well versed in the art of politics. 
The state is a natural institution.
Описание слайда:
Antique period Socratic Law is above both the ruler and the ruled. Man is a social being and therefore the institution of the State is necessary and beneficial for him. Politics is not a profession but an art. The ruler should be well versed in the art of politics. The state is a natural institution.

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Antique  period
Plato
Republic (380-370 BC), 
The Statesman (360 BC) and 
The Laws (350 BC)
Описание слайда:
Antique period Plato Republic (380-370 BC), The Statesman (360 BC) and The Laws (350 BC)

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Plato
Plato also examined four main types of regimes: timocracy, oligarchy, democracy and tyranny
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Plato Plato also examined four main types of regimes: timocracy, oligarchy, democracy and tyranny

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In the Statesman, Plato divided the states into lawful and unlawful states
Описание слайда:
In the Statesman, Plato divided the states into lawful and unlawful states

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Aristotle 

The Nicomachean Ethics
The Constitutions, 
The Colonies
Politics
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Aristotle The Nicomachean Ethics The Constitutions, The Colonies Politics

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Aristotle
Описание слайда:
Aristotle

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Middle age
Augustine: The City of God
Two cities, the city of God and the earthly city, are distinguished by two loves, love of God and (misdirected) love of self, and by two destinies, heaven and hell. Augustine's most famous contribution to theology was the doctrine of predestination.
Описание слайда:
Middle age Augustine: The City of God Two cities, the city of God and the earthly city, are distinguished by two loves, love of God and (misdirected) love of self, and by two destinies, heaven and hell. Augustine's most famous contribution to theology was the doctrine of predestination.

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St Thomas Aquinas
. Summa Theologiae 
The best form of government, according to Thomas, is a mixed government combining elements of democracy, aristocracy and kingship.
Описание слайда:
St Thomas Aquinas . Summa Theologiae The best form of government, according to Thomas, is a mixed government combining elements of democracy, aristocracy and kingship.

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Renaissance
Niccolò Machiavelli was born in the year 1469. 
The Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livy (1513–17), 
The Art of War (1521), 
The Florentine History (1525), 
The Prince (1513)
Описание слайда:
Renaissance Niccolò Machiavelli was born in the year 1469. The Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livy (1513–17), The Art of War (1521), The Florentine History (1525), The Prince (1513)

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Machiavelli
The Prince is full of hard and calculated advice about how a new prince should act to establish himself in a recently conquered princedom, and a good deal of the advice is about the use of violence and deceit.
Machiavelli famously proposes that a prince must learn how to imitate both the lion and the fox, learning how to recognize traps as does the fox and to frighten away wolves as does the lion.
Описание слайда:
Machiavelli The Prince is full of hard and calculated advice about how a new prince should act to establish himself in a recently conquered princedom, and a good deal of the advice is about the use of violence and deceit. Machiavelli famously proposes that a prince must learn how to imitate both the lion and the fox, learning how to recognize traps as does the fox and to frighten away wolves as does the lion.

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The Enlightenment
Thomas Hobbes Leviathan (1651). 
“war . . . of every man against every man,”
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The Enlightenment Thomas Hobbes Leviathan (1651). “war . . . of every man against every man,”

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Thomas Hobbes
Hobbes argued that to escape such a bleak life, people had to hand over their rights to a strong ruler. In exchange, they gained law and order. Hobbes called this agreement by which people created a government the social contract.
Описание слайда:
Thomas Hobbes Hobbes argued that to escape such a bleak life, people had to hand over their rights to a strong ruler. In exchange, they gained law and order. Hobbes called this agreement by which people created a government the social contract.

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John Locke

all people are born free and equal, with three natural rights— life, liberty, and property. 
The purpose of government, said Locke, is to protect these rights. 
If a government fails to do so, citizens have a right 
to overthrow it. 
 His belief that a government’s power comes from the consent of the people is the foundation of modern democracy.
Описание слайда:
John Locke all people are born free and equal, with three natural rights— life, liberty, and property. The purpose of government, said Locke, is to protect these rights. If a government fails to do so, citizens have a right to overthrow it. His belief that a government’s power comes from the consent of the people is the foundation of modern democracy.

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Montesquieu
On the Spirit of Laws (1748). 
the study of political liberty. 
Montesquieu proposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government.
Описание слайда:
Montesquieu On the Spirit of Laws (1748). the study of political liberty. Montesquieu proposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government.

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Auguste Comte
Comte argued for an understanding of society he labeled The Law of Three Stages. 
The first was the theological stage where people took a religious view of society. 
The second was the metaphysical stage where people understood society as natural (not supernatural). 
final stage was the scientific or positivist stage, which he believed to be the pinnacle of social development.
Описание слайда:
Auguste Comte Comte argued for an understanding of society he labeled The Law of Three Stages. The first was the theological stage where people took a religious view of society. The second was the metaphysical stage where people understood society as natural (not supernatural). final stage was the scientific or positivist stage, which he believed to be the pinnacle of social development.

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Sociology
Other classical theorists of sociology from the late 19th and early 20th centuries include Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, Ferdinand Toennies, Emile Durkheim, Vilfredo Pareto, and Max Weber.
Описание слайда:
Sociology Other classical theorists of sociology from the late 19th and early 20th centuries include Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, Ferdinand Toennies, Emile Durkheim, Vilfredo Pareto, and Max Weber.



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