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ST.PAUL’S CATHEDRAL Подготовлено учителем английского языка Соболевой Алевтиной Владимировной. МОУ «Гимназия №4», г.о. Электросталь, Московская область. 2011 год

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ST.PAUL’S CATHEDRAL HISTORY AND INTERESTING FACTS

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Quick Facts Site Information Names: St Paul's Cathedral; Cathedral Church of St. Paul Location: London, England Faith: Christianity (Anglican) Dedication: St. Paul Category: Cathedrals Architecture: English Baroque Date: 1675-1710 Architect: Christopher Wren (1632-1723) Status: active

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INTRODUCTION

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View of St. Paul's Cathedral from the air.

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HISTORY The present St. Paul's Cathedral, which was built between 1675 and 1710, is the fifth cathedral to occupy the site, which was sacred (священный, святой) even before Christianity arrived. The first cathedral was built by the Saxons in wood in 604 AD. It burned down in 675 and was rebuilt, again in wood, ten years later.

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By1300 it was the third longest church in Europe and had one of Europe's tallest spires. By1300 it was the third longest church in Europe and had one of Europe's tallest spires. In 1561 the spire was destroyed by lightning(молния) and it was not replaced. "Old St Paul's" was ruined in the Great Fire of London in 1666.

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St. Paul’s Cathedral in 1896

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St. Paul’s cathedral is the second largest church in the world. The Cathedral is enormous. It is 175 m long and its impressive dome (купол ) rises111 m (365 feet - one foot for each day of the year) and is about St. Paul’s cathedral is the second largest church in the world. The Cathedral is enormous. It is 175 m long and its impressive dome (купол ) rises111 m (365 feet - one foot for each day of the year) and is about 32 m (112 feet) in diameter. Did you know? The dome is one of the largest cathedral domes in the world after St. Peter’s in Rome and weighs about 65,000 tons.

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THE ARCHITECT SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN

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THE CONSTRUCTION. Like most Christian churches, St. Paul's Cathedral is laid out (заложен) in the shape of a cross. The longer end of the main arm of the cross is called the nave (неф-центральная часть церкви) ; the two ends of the shorter arm are called the transepts (трансепт- поперечный неф). At the "top" of the cross is the choir (клирос, место хора) and the altar (алтарь). The crypt (склеп) is in a basement underneath the cathedral.

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The Cathedral is planned in the Renaissance style. The Cathedral is planned in the Renaissance style. The West Porch (крыльцо) is the main entrance to St. Paul's. A large stairway (лестница, лестничный марш; ряд ступеней) leads up to six sets of double columns and the Great West Door which is used only on ceremonial occasions such as the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana in 1981.

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The towers were not part of the architect’s original plan. Wren added them in 1707. Both were designed to have clocks, but now only the tower on the south (right) side has one. The towers were not part of the architect’s original plan. Wren added them in 1707. Both were designed to have clocks, but now only the tower on the south (right) side has one.

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THE NAVE

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THE WELLINGTON MONUMENT

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Did you know? Did you know? Other memorials commemorate the landscape painter William Turner (1775-1851); the first president of the Royal Academy, Sir Joshua Reynolds; a British nurse and hospital reformer Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) and many other notable people.

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THE CHAPELS The nave has several chapels ( капелла, часовня, молельня-место для проведения служб). To the left (north transept) is St. Dunstan's Chapel, which was one of the earliest parts of the cathedral to come into use. It was originally known as the Morning Chapel. In 1905 it was dedicated to St. Dunstan, who was Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury over 1,000 years ago. All Souls Chapel is further down on the left side. It is dedicated primarily to soldiers of World War I. The Chapel of the Order of St. Michael and St. George is across from St. Dunstan's on the right side (south transept). Round the corner behind the high alter is the American Memorial Chapel. It is dedicated to 28 thousand Americans based in Britain who lost their lives in World War II. It was opened in November 1958.

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THE GALLERIES

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THE CRYPT

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Throughout its history, St Paul's has been a place where the individual and the nation can express feelings of joy, gratitude and sorrow. Throughout its history, St Paul's has been a place where the individual and the nation can express feelings of joy, gratitude and sorrow. Many important events have taken place here over the years, including: The funerals (похороны) of Lord Nelson (1806), the Duke of Wellington (1852) and Sir Winston Churchill(1965) ; Celebration for Queen Victoria Diamond Jubilee (1897)and the Silver Jubilees of King George V (1935) and the Queen (1977); Peace services marking the end of the First and Second World Wars; The Service of Remembrance and Commemoration for September 11, 2001; The 80th and 100th birthdays of Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother; The wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, to Lady Diana Spencer; The Thanksgiving for the Golden Jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen.

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St Paul's has remained a busy, working church where millions have come to worship and find peace. It is a heritage site of international importance which attracts thousands of people each year. It is a symbol of the City and Nation and, above all, a lasting monument to the glory of God. St Paul's has remained a busy, working church where millions have come to worship and find peace. It is a heritage site of international importance which attracts thousands of people each year. It is a symbol of the City and Nation and, above all, a lasting monument to the glory of God.

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GLOSSARY church (церковь) cathedral (кафедральный собор) faith (религиозная вера ,вероисповедование) sacred (священный, святой) spire (шпиль) service (служба , месса) dome (купол ) grave (могила ) inscription (надпись) nave (неф-центральная часть церкви) transept (трансепт- поперечный неф). choir (клирос, место хора)

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tower (башня) tower (башня) high altar (алтарь, главный престол). crypt (склеп) stairway (лестница, лестничный марш; ряд ступеней) cross (крест) tile (плитка) priest (священник ) chapel ( капелла, часовня, молельня-место для проведения служб). tomb(надгробие) internal gallery (внутренняя галерея) external gallery (внешняя галерея ) coffin (гроб) funeral (похороны)

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Literature and internet resources. Васильев М.В. Достопримечательности Лондона. – 2-ое изд. –М.: Айрис-пресс, 2008. -64 с. Васильев М.В. Достопримечательности Великобритании. – 2-ое изд. –М.: Айрис-пресс, 2008. -112 с. Синельникова М.В. Это Лондон. География. История. Культура. Достопримечательности: Книга для чтения на английском языке с вопросами ,заданиями и диалогами. – Спб.: КОРОНА принт,2010. -352с., ил. http://www.stpauls.co.uk/Cathedral-History http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral

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Источники www.stpauls.co.uk http://www.stpauls.co.uk/Cathedral-History http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral


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