Презентация Theoretical Perspectives

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PLEKHANOV PLEKHANOV RUSSIAN UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMIC

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Theoretical Perspectives Theoretical Perspectives Explain what sociological theories are and how they are used. Describe sociology as a multi-perspectival social science, which is divided into positivist, interpretive and critical paradigms. Understand the similarities and differences between structural functionalism, critical sociology, and symbolic interactionism.

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Theoretical perspectives (paradigms) Theoretical perspectives (paradigms) provide sociologists with an orienting framework—a philosophical position—for asking certain kinds of questions about society and its people. Sociologists study everything from specific events (the micro level of analysis of small social patterns) to the “big picture” (the macro level of analysis of large social patterns).

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Three primary theoretical perspectives: Three primary theoretical perspectives: the symbolic interactionist perspective the functionalist perspective the conflict perspective

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The symbolic interactionist perspective The symbolic interactionist perspective The symbolic interactionist perspective, also known as symbolic interactionism, directs sociologists to consider the symbols and details of everyday life, what these symbols mean, and how people interact with each other. Symbolic interactionism traces its origins to Max Weber's assertion that individuals act according to their interpretation of the meaning of their world The American philosopher George H. Mead (1863–1931) introduced this perspective to American sociology in the 1920s.

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The functionalist perspective The functionalist perspective According to the functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, each aspect of society is interdependent and contributes to society's functioning as a whole. Functionalists believe that social consensus or cohesion held society together, in which members of the society agree upon, and work together to achieve, what is best for society as a whole.

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Emile Durkheim suggested that social consensus takes one of two forms: Emile Durkheim suggested that social consensus takes one of two forms: Mechanical solidarity is a form of social cohesion that arises when people in a society maintain similar values and beliefs and engage in similar types of work. Mechanical solidarity most commonly occurs in traditional, simple societies such as those in which everyone herds cattle or farms. Amish society exemplifies mechanical solidarity. In contrast, organic solidarity is a form of social cohesion that arises when the people in a society are interdependent, but hold to varying values and beliefs and engage in varying types of work. Organic solidarity most commonly occurs in industrialized, complex societies such those in large American cities like New York in the 2000s.

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American functionalist sociologist Robert Merton (b. 1910) divides human functions into two types: American functionalist sociologist Robert Merton (b. 1910) divides human functions into two types: manifest functions are intentional and obvious latent functions are unintentional and not obvious.

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The conflict perspective The conflict perspective The conflict perspective, which originated primarily out of Karl Marx's writings on class struggles, presents society in a different light than do the functionalist and symbolic interactionist perspectives. While these latter perspectives focus on the positive aspects of society that contribute to its stability, the conflict perspective focuses on the negative, conflicted, and ever‐changing nature of society.

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Sociology is the rigorous and methodical study of society. Sociology is the rigorous and methodical study of society. Sociologists investigate the structure of groups, organisations, and societies, and how people interact in various contexts. Anthony Giddens (2013) offers the following definition: Sociology is the study of human social life, groups and societies. It is a dazzling and compelling enterprise, having as its subject matter our own behaviour as human beings. The scope of sociology is extremely wide, ranging from the analysis of passing encounters between individuals in the street up to the investigation of global social processes. The scope of sociology is extremely wide and may encompass a multitude of topic areas and theoretical perspectives.

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1. SOCIOLOGY as a science Sociology is the rigorous and methodical study of society. Sociologists investigate the structure of groups organizations and societies how people interact in various contexts.

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1. SOCIOLOGY as a science Anthony Giddens (2013) offers the following definition: “Sociology is the study of human social life, groups and societies. It is a dazzling and compelling enterprise, having as its subject matter our own behaviour as human beings. The scope of sociology is extremely wide, ranging from the analysis of passing encounters between individuals in the street up to the investigation of global social processes.”

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1. SOCIOLOGY as a science Sociology is the rigorous and methodical study of society. Sociologists investigate the structure of groups, organisations, and societies, and how people interact in various contexts. Anthony Giddens (2013) offers the following definition: Sociology is the study of human social life, groups and societies. It is a dazzling and compelling enterprise, having as its subject matter our own behaviour as human beings. The scope of sociology is extremely wide, ranging from the analysis of passing encounters between individuals in the street up to the investigation of global social processes. The scope of sociology is extremely wide and may encompass a multitude of topic areas and theoretical perspectives. For instance, sociologists are interested in everything from the fleeting interactions of people in everyday life, to gender representations in the media, to large social processes such as globalisation and migration. As such, sociology may be said to be the broadest of social science disciplines and in many ways complements other disciplines such as anthropology, psychology, geography, history and political science, and even subjects like art and literature. While aiming for scientific objectivity, sociologists generally acknowledge that sociology cannot be viewed as a wholly dis-interested enterprise. Being conducted by people already involved in what they study (i.e. society), sociologists acknowledge that values, morals and political perspectives are intertwined with the ‘science of society’. Scientific objectivity and rigour is thus a guiding ideal, but it is recognised that no one has a ‘God’s-eye view’ of reality and sociology is an interpretive undertaking.



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