Презентация Югославский конфликт

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The largest war in the history of Yugoslavia (1991-2001)

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Yugoslavia. The war in Yugoslavia The political confrontation between the US and the USSR, which lasted from the mid-1940s to the early 1990s, and never grew into a real military conflict, led to the emergence of the Cold War. Yugoslavia is a former socialist multinational country that began to disintegrate practically simultaneously with the Soviet Union. The main reason that triggered the beginning of the military conflict was the desire of the West to establish its influence in those territories that formerly belonged to the USSR. The war in Yugoslavia was made up of a series of armed conflicts that lasted for 10 years - from 1991 to 2001, and eventually led the state to disintegration, which resulted in the formation of several independent states. Here the fighting was of an international character, with Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania and Macedonia taking part. The war in Yugoslavia began because of ethnic and religious considerations. These events, which occurred in Europe, became bloodshed from the time of 1939-1945.

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Slovenia and Yugoslavia The war in Yugoslavia began with an armed conflict from June 25 to July 4, 1991. The course of events originates from Slovenia's unilaterally declared independence, as a result of which fighting broke out between it and Yugoslavia. The leadership of the republic took control of all borders, as well as airspace over the country. Local military units began to prepare for the seizure of the barracks of JNA. The Yugoslav People's Army met with fierce resistance from local detachments. In a hurry, barricades were erected and the ways by which the JNA detachments followed were blocked. In the republic, mobilization was announced, and its leaders asked for help from some European countries. The war ended with the signing of the Breton agreement, which obliged the JNA to end the armed conflict, and Slovenia had to suspend the signing of the declaration on proclaiming its independence for three months. Losses from the Yugoslav Army amounted to 45 people killed and 146 wounded, and from the Slovenian, respectively, 19 and 182. Soon the administration of the SFRY was forced to admit defeat and reconcile with independent Slovenia. In conclusion, the JNA withdrew its troops from the territory of the newly formed state.

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Bosnian War 1991-1992 marked the beginning of the path of liberation from the crisis of Bosnia and Herzegovina, into which Yugoslavia has drawn it. The war this time affected not only one republic, but also neighboring lands. As a result, this conflict attracted the attention of NATO, the EU and the UN. This time, military actions took place between Bosnian Muslims and their co-religionists, advocating for autonomy, as well as Croats and armed groups of Serbs. At the beginning of the uprising in the conflict, JNA was also involved. A little later, NATO forces, mercenaries and volunteers from different sides joined forces. In February 1992, a proposal was made to divide this republic into 7 parts, two of which were to be allocated to Croats and Muslims, and three to the Serbs. This agreement was not approved by the head of the Bosnian forces, Aliya Izetbegovic. Croatian and Serbian nationalists said that this was the only chance to end the conflict, after which the Civil War in Yugoslavia continued, attracting the attention of almost all international organizations. The Bosnian armed forces joined with the Muslims, thanks to which the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was established. In May 1992 the ARBC turned into the official armed forces of the future independent state. Gradually, military actions ceased due to the signing of the Dayton Agreement, which predetermined the constitutional structure of modern independent Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Operation "Mindful Force" This name received an aerial bombardment of the Serbs' position in the fighting conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina conducted by NATO. The reason for the beginning of this operation was the explosion in 1995 in the market of Markale. Identify the perpetrators of terrorism was not possible, but NATO blamed the incident on the Serbs, who categorically refused to withdraw their weapons from Sarajevo. Thus, the history of the war in Yugoslavia continued with Operation Deliberate Force on the night of August 30, 1995. Its goal was to reduce the possibility of the Serbian assault on safe zones, which NATO established. Aviation of Great Britain, the USA, Germany, France, Spain, Turkey and the Netherlands began to strike at positions of Serbs. Over two weeks, more than three thousand NATO sorties were flown. The result of the bombardment was the destruction of radar installations, warehouses with ammunition and weapons, bridges, telecommunications and other vital infrastructure. And, of course, the main goal was achieved: the Serbs left the city of Sarajevo with heavy equipment.

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Kosovo The war in Yugoslavia continued with an armed conflict that erupted between the FRY and Albanian separatists in 1998. The inhabitants of Kosovo sought independence. A year later, NATO intervened in the situation, as a result of which an operation called "Union Force" began. This conflict was systematically accompanied by human rights violations, which resulted in numerous victims and a mass influx of refugees - a few months after the outbreak of the war, there were about 1,000 dead and wounded, and more than 2,000 refugees. The outcome of the war was the 1999 UN resolution, which guaranteed the prevention of the resumption of fire and the return of Kosovo to Yugoslavia. The Security Council ensured public order, supervision of demining, the demilitarization of the KLA (Kosovo Liberation Army) and armed groups of Albanians.

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South Serbia Conflict between an illegal armed group, which was called the Army of the Liberation of Medvedi, Presheva and Buyanovac, and Yugoslavia. The peak of activity in Serbia coincided with the worsening situation in Macedonia. The wars in the former Yugoslavia almost stopped after some agreements were reached between NATO and Belgrade in 2001, which guaranteed the return of Yugoslav troops to the zone of ground security. In addition, agreements were signed on the formation of police forces, as well as on the amnesty of militants who voluntarily decided to surrender. Confrontation in the Presevo Valley took the lives of 68 people, 14 of whom were policemen. Albanian terrorists carried out 313 attacks, which killed 14 people (9 of them were saved, and the fate of four remains unknown to this day)

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Macedonia The reason for the conflict in this republic does not differ from previous clashes in Yugoslavia. Confrontation occurred between the Albanian separatists and Macedonians throughout almost the whole of 2001. The situation began to get worse in January, when the government of the republic witnessed frequent incidents of aggression towards the military and police. Since the Macedonian security service did not take any action, the population threatened to buy weapons independently. After this, from January to November 2001, there were constant clashes between Albanian groups and Macedonians. The bloodiest events took place on the territory of the city of Tetovo. As a result of the Macedonian conflict, there were 70 people, and Albanian separatists - about 800. The battle ended with the signing of the Ohrid agreement between Macedonia and the Albanian forces, which led the republic to victory in the struggle for independence and the transition to the establishment of a peaceful life. The war in Yugoslavia, whose chronicle of events officially ends in November 2001, in fact continues to this day. Now it has the character of all sorts of strikes and armed clashes in the former republics of the FRY.

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Statistics of the Yugoslav conflict.

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Results of the war In the post-war period, the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia was established. This document has restored justice to the victims of the conflicts of all republics (except Slovenia). Specific persons, not factions directly involved in crimes against humanity, were found and punished. During the period 1991-2001, throughout the territory of the former Yugoslavia, about 300 thousand bombs were dropped and about 1,000 missiles were fired. In the struggle of individual republics for their independence, a big role was played by NATO, which in time intervened in the arbitrariness of the Yugoslav authorities. The war in Yugoslavia, the years and events of which claimed the lives of thousands of civilians, should serve as a lesson for society, since even in our modern life it is necessary not only to appreciate, but also to support such a fragile peace in the whole world with all the forces.

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